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技术革新导致失业 夏威夷欲推行全民基本收入

 据英国《独立报》报道,美国夏威夷州正在考虑向该州所有公民发放基本收入,以帮助人们应对技术革新导致的失业问题。夏威夷是首个通过立法支持基本收入的美国州。研究表明,科技进步对夏威夷的工作人群打击尤其沉重,因为该州经济依靠旅游业带动,而这一行业中的许多职位,如服务员、厨师以及清洁工等最终都将被机器取代。

 

技术革新导致失业 夏威夷欲推行全民基本收入

 

Hawaii is considering introducing a basic income for all its citizens.
夏威夷正在考虑在该州施行全民基本收入政策。

The US state’s congress voted to look into the idea as research suggests a large number of current jobs are likely to be replaced by automated technology in the coming years.
夏威夷州议会投票决定研究这一政策,因为调查表明,未来几年内,现有的许多工作很可能被自动化技术取代。

State representative Chris Lee, who introduced the legislation, said: "Our economy is changing far more rapidly than anybody's expected.”
提出这项立法的州议员克里斯•李称:“经济变化的速度远远超出了所有人的预期。”

He added that it was important "to be sure that everybody will benefit from the technological revolution that we're seeing to make sure no one's left behind."
他表示,重要的是,“要确保每个人都能从技术革命中受益,我们都希望确保没有人在技术革命中掉队。”

The bill declares that all families in Hawaii are entitled to “basic financial security” – paving the way for a policy that would guarantee this.
该议案宣称,夏威夷所有家庭都有权享受“基本财务安全”,这为确保该项权利的有关政策铺平了道路。

It also tasks several government offices with analyzing the state’s economy and finding “ways to ensure all families have basic financial security."
议案还要求几个政府部门分析夏威夷州的经济形势,寻找“确保所有家庭都能获得基本财务安全的办法。”

Universal basic income (UBI) involves paying every citizen a set amount of money each month to live on, regardless of whether or not they are in work.
全民基本收入是指无论公民是否有工作,每月都能领到一定数额的钱。

Hawaii is the first US state to pass legislation in support of UBI but a number of countries around the world have taken steps towards introducing the policy.
夏威夷是美国首个通过立法支持全民基本收入的州,不过,一些其他国家已经纷纷采取措施推行该政策。

Finland and Germany have implemented pilot schemes and the Canadian province of Ontario is set to follow suit. The Dutch city of Utrecht is also trialing the policy.
芬兰和德国已经实施了试点计划。加拿大安大略省打算效仿。荷兰乌得勒支市也在试行这一政策。

Advocates say UBI is a more effective way of distributing money than current social welfare systems and will help people cope with the job losses resulting from new technology.
该政策的支持者称,全民基本收入是一种比现行社会福利系统更有效的货币分配方式,且能帮助人们应对技术革新导致的失业问题。

Critics, however, say it will discourage people from working and is prohibitively expensive.
然而,批评者称,该政策代价极高,且会打消人们工作的积极性。

Research suggests that Hawaii workers could be hit particularly hard by technological advances because many of the jobs in the tourism industry that fuels the state’s economy, such as waiters, cooks and cleaners, will eventually be replaced by machines.
研究表明,科技进步对夏威夷的工作群体打击尤其沉重,因为该州经济依靠旅游业带动,而这一行业中的许多岗位,如服务员、厨师以及清洁工等最终都将被机器取代。

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